ASL info
If you want to save the world, then don’t be an interpreter
Prof on social justice
Advocate vs. Ally

Advocate: One who speaks out on issues on behalf of others

  • but often hearing people can take up space of Deaf people in discussing issues

Ally: One who supports Deaf individuals in their own struggle for liberation

      To become and ally:

  • Learn about oppression
  • Help members of your own group understand oppression
  • Realize you may be part of the problem
  • As a majority member, you can’t see oppression as clearly as the marginalized 
Oppression is an inevitable result when a “power over” rather than a “power with” mindset exists
SEE: 2 out of 3 Rule

"Two-Out-Of-Three" RULE 

Each English word is checked against the following criteria: 

  1. Sound
  2. Meaning
  3. Spelling

If the word fits in 2/3 criteria, it will be signed the same way in all contexts regardless of meaning.

The outcome was that sound and spelling took precedence over meaning.

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How do we justify learning their language and profiting from it without giving back??
Deaf Studies/Interpreting teacher on Interpreters 
Two Types of Modality

Simultaneous: “At the Same Time: Listen/Sign or Watch/Speak at the same time. Delivery of the target language at the same time the source language is being produced (with a slight lag)

PROS: “Real Time”, natural flow and exchange of ideas

CONS: Reduced processing time

Consecutive: "In Sequence" or "In Order". Interpretation begins only after the speaker has spoken/signed a sentence/paragraph. Delivery of source language (or a portion of it) then an interpretation into the target language.

PROS: More accurate, more time to process, less correction

CONS: Deaf people have had bad experiences (power and trust issues), unnatural flow

What is VRS??

Video Relay Service is a free telephone relay service use to make and receive calls using ASL (English and Spanish) which is available 24/7 by mandate. 

  1. The VRS industry started in 2000 as an offshoot of Telecommunications Relay Service (TRS) for TTY users
  2. VRS is regulated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
  3. The FCC reimburses VRS companies from the Interstate TRS Fund and the FCC sets the standards for VRS services
  4. It’s the first time in history that large corporations and federal government worked together to provide large scale interpreting services 

VRS Standards

  • Calls must be made from different locations, cannot be interoffice calls in one company/building
  • The interpreters must work with diverse populations nationwide and internationally 
  • Interpreters must be skilled and capable and certified. VRS companies have led the effort to train and support certification of ASL/English Interpreters
  • VRS encourages teaming with CDI on calls of a demanding nature 
About 10% of the population has some degree of hearing loss
Specialized Interpreting Settings (Religious and Educational) Part 1

Religious: The interpreter needs to be

  • Someone who subscribes to the beliefs 
  • Preparation is essential
  • Placement varies
  • Compensation? 

Education:

  • Variation standards for qualifications - except state laws (CA 2007)
  • Ideal: BA degree and certification (NIC AA 2008, BA 2012)
  • Placement varies - sign lines are important 
  • Compensation varies
  • Teacher aid/interpreter/part of the educational team. 

These can include working in one-on-one settings, small group, or large group.

Team Interpreting

The decision to use team interpreters include:

  • length and complexity of the assignment 
  • Person(s) being served
  • Dynamics of the setting
  • Avoidance of repetitive motion injures 

In team interpreting, there are primary and supporting roles

  • There needs to be preparation and cooperation established beforehand 
  • While one interpreter is in turn, the other is monitoring the settings, ensuring appropriate transitions, prompting the primary interpreter 

Each interpreter will usual be the primary interpreter in 20 to 30 minute intervals 

When working in educational settings, there is a variation of responsibility depending on the age/grade of the student. As you can see, when the student is in elementary school, the weight of the responsibility is on the interpreter but as the child gets older, the responsibility is shifted onto them. 

When working in educational settings, there is a variation of responsibility depending on the age/grade of the student. As you can see, when the student is in elementary school, the weight of the responsibility is on the interpreter but as the child gets older, the responsibility is shifted onto them. 

Specialized Interpreting Settings

There are several different specialized interpreting fields you can focus on. Those include:

  • Medical
  • Legal
  • Mental Health
  • Conferences
  • Performing Arts
  • Employment/Social Services 
  • Deaf-Blind
  • K-12 Educational
  • VRS
  • Religious 
  • Education
Common Acronyms and Initialisms

ASL: American Sign Language 

VRS: Video Relay Service

RID: Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf

EIPA: Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment

NAD: National Association of the Deaf

CDI: Certified Deaf Interpreter 

DPOC: Deaf Person of Color

DPN: Deaf President Now

Bi-Bi: Bilingual-Bicultural 

MCE: Manually Coded English

SSS: Sign Supported Speech

SEE 1: Seeing Essential English

SEE 2: Signing Exact English

PSE: Pidgin Sign English 

MLS/MLC: Minimal Language Skills/Minimal Language Competency

CASE: Conceptually Accurate Signed English 

CODA: Child of Deaf Adult

SSP: Support Service Provider 

CPC: Code of Professional Conduct

49 % of certified interpreters spend less than 10% of their time socializing with Deaf people

Different types of settings where interpreters work and the variations within them.